If you have ever been to the doctor, you are familiar with the practice of taking blood pressure readings. Taking blood pressure is critical, as high blood pressure (hypertension) gives no warning sign.
What's more, many people are unaware they have the condition until complications arise and it might be too late. This is why hypertension is coined the "silent killer".
But what actually do the numbers mean? Is there such a thing as perfect blood pressure? If so, how do you ensure readings fall in the recommended range?
Find out what the numbers should look like and what to do about it here!
What Is Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure (BP) measures the force of blood against artery walls as the heart beats and pumps it. A blood pressure range is comprised of two measurements: systolic and diastolic.
• Systolic blood pressure measures the pressure within the arteries while the heart is pumping blood. Systolic blood pressure should be less than 120 and is read as the top number.
• Diastolic blood pressure measures the pressure between each heartbeat or pump. Or, when the heart is resting and refilling with blood. Diastolic BP should be less than 80 and is read as the bottom number.
Again, blood pressure is read as systolic over diastolic (systolic/diastolic) with measurements written as millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The readings are then placed into a category.
BP chart sourced from the American Heart Association
What Is a Normal BP Range for Women and Men?
Greater regard is often given to systolic BP, mostly due to the fact it tends to rise with age. This makes it a major risk factor for heart disease, especially after age 50.
However, both systolic and diastolic pressures are important. In fact, the AHA reports death risk from ischemic heart disease and stroke doubles with every 20 mm Hg systolic increase. This also serves true with every 10 mm Hg diastolic increase among people from age 40 to 89.
Ultimately, 120 over 80 or under is considered to be normal or good blood pressure. At this point, medical treatment is not necessary. People are, however, encouraged to sustain a healthy lifestyle while monitoring BP as advised.
An elevated reading of 120 to 129 and less than 80 is also known as prehypertension. This is essentially a predictive warning sign of developing high blood pressure, or hypertension. Hypertension was previously diagnosed at 140 over 90 or higher. However, new guidelines identify stage 1 hypertension is measured at 130 to 139 or 80 to 89.
Before being diagnosed with hypertension, your doctor will likely take two to three BP readings. This may be over three or more separate appointments according to the Mayo Clinic. Calculating average blood pressure also helps provide a more accurate picture of current status, as pressures naturally ebb and flow throughout the day.
If managing diabetes, heart failure, and other conditions, BPs are recommended to be kept below 130/85. However, a doctor can help determine a safe range for you, along with recognizing any concern for too low of readings.
Causes, Risk Factors, and Consequences of High Blood Pressure
While there is no BP chart by age, weight, and gender, each variable, amongst others, can influence readings. WebMD suggests while the exact causes of high BP are not known, these factors likely play a role:
• Poor diet, including too much salt and alcohol intake
• A sedentary lifestyle
• Genetics and family history of high blood pressure
• Growing older
• Certain health conditions, including chronic kidney disease, adrenal and thyroid disorders, and sleep apnea
People can also have high BP due to white coat syndrome. For instance, a normal resting BP might be 110/72 mmHg. However, going to the doctor may cause anxiety and lead to abnormal readings.
Exceeding the healthy blood pressure range for men and women deserves strategic interventions to lower readings. Ideally, this should be partnered with a healthcare professional.
Without proper management, high blood pressure can have serious and dangerous effects on the body. The Mayo Clinic identifies the following health outcomes of high BP:
• Narrowed, weakened, and damaged blood vessels
• Coronary artery disease (CAD)
• Enlarged left heart
• Heart failure
• Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
• Mild cognitive impairment
• Kidney failure and scarring
• Eye blood vessel damage
• Nerve damage (neuropathy)
• Sexual dysfunction
• Bone loss
• Sleep difficulties
How to Ensure a Normal Blood Pressure Range
Knowing blood pressure meaning and risks is the first step. The second is making sure average BP ranges remain in proposed levels. Fortunately, BP can be reduced and managed using the following tips:
1. Monitor Blood Pressures
Monitoring and recording blood pressures is how patients can become their own advocates. Checking your blood pressure at home provides useful information on current health status. They also help determine how effective current treatments are working and protect from threatening health problems and risks.
The AHA outlines the proper way to use a home blood pressure monitor. This includes being still, sitting correctly, measuring consistently, and recording results.
2. Make Healthy Lifestyle Changes
While age, genetics, and other factors cannot be changed, there are many methods that can help reduce and manage blood pressure.
Making dietary changes has a profound impact on reducing blood pressure. Adding more whole grains, fruits, veggies, lean and plant-based proteins, and healthy fat sources is encouraged. Lowering salt intake is also recommended.
If the stress of eating a healthy is overwhelming, consider using a meal delivery service that offers a heart-healthy program. For instance, bistroMD's heart-healthy program is designed to lower blood pressure. All meals fall at or below AHA's guidelines for calories, sodium, total fat, and saturated fat.
Exercising regularly also helps improve blood pressure readings. Aim for 150 minutes of cardio weekly, or about 30 minutes each day. Quitting smoking and practicing stress-reduction techniques can be helpful, too.
Losing weight is often a byproduct of making healthier lifestyle changes, which further lessens the risk of elevated blood pressure. Besides, weight loss further reduces the risk of other diseases and improves overall health.
3. Take Medications As Needed
While making lifestyle changes is primarily encouraged, blood pressure medications may be prescribed if readings are not controlled. They might also be advised for more aggressive treatment. It is important to follow-up with a doctor to verify the prescription's success and continue scheduling routine visits.
Ultimately, keep in the know of your blood pressure numbers and seek out medical advice as needed. Ensuring healthy blood pressures cannot only mitigate the risks of additional risks but be lifesaving.
Besides, hypertension is not recognized as the "silent killer" for nothing!